Systems with Analog Integrated Circuits
- Stability of closed-loop systems based on general-purpose OAs. Methods for internal and external frequency compensation of OAs.
- Static and dynamic OA limitations; main parameters of OAs.
- Current-Mode active devices - the Current-Feedback Operational Amplifier and the Transconductor (Gm cell): operation; internal structure; modeling; parameters; main applications; comparison with traditional (voltage-mode) OA.
- Noise in analog circuits: noise properties, modeling and analysis methods. Noise models for active devices. Effects of OA nonidealities in linear applications with OAs; methods for minimising and compensating for these effects.
- Programmable-gain and instrumentation amplifiers: features, parameters; classical implementation solutions in voltage-mode.
- Current-mode instrumentation amplifiers: main principles and features of current-mode circuits; examples of current-mode implementation of instrumentation amplifiers; comparison with classical, voltage-mode, amplifiers.
- Controlled-Gain Amplifiers implemented with voltage - and current-mode OAs.
- Continuous-time Filters: main topologies and synthesis methods; implementation of 1st and 2nd order sections with voltage - and current-mode active devices
- Circuits with non-linear transfer characteristics: precision rectifiers; peak detectors; sample-and-hold amplifiers.
- Integrated voltage comparators: internal structures; main parameters and limitations. Applications: summing and differential comparators; window comparators; Schmitt triggers.
- Signal generators: main features and implementation techniques. OA-based generators: sine-wave; triangular & rectangular - wave; sawtooth wave generators. Integrated signal generators: principle of operation; examples.
- Analog Multipliers - main features and implementation techniques: controlled MOS resistor; PWM; log/antilog; variable transconductance. Examples of and applications with integrated analog multipliers.
- PLL circuits – fundamentals: basic architecture and principle of operation; modeling and analysis; main parameters, implementation examples and applications
- Low-dropout voltage regulators (LDO).